1938-1946 yılları arası Cumhuriyet Gazetesi'nin genel yayın politikası
Kozok, Fırat. 1938-1946 yılları arası Cumhuriyet Gazetesi'nin genel yayın politikası. danışman Cem Yaşın. Ankara: Gazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, 2007. 111 s.
1938-1946 Yılları Arası Cumhuriyet Gazetesi'nin Genel Yayın Politikası konulu tez, Cumhuriyet'in İkinci Dünya Savaşı sırasındaki genel yayın politikasını ele almaktadır. Tezde, gazetenin savaş öncesindeki yayın politikası, daha sonraki yıllarda savaşa katılacak ülkelerle Türkiye ilişkilerini yansıtış biçimi ele alınmış, savaşın başlangıcı ve ilerleyen dönemlerindeki yayın politikasındaki değişiklikler yansıtılmaya çalışılmıştır. Tüm bunlar yapılırken, dönemin koşulları da ayrıntılarıyla incelenmiş, gazetenin yayın politikasında etkili olan, sosyal ve ekonomik koşullar da mercek altına alınmıştır. Çalışma hazırlanırken, tarihsel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmış, sözlü tarih araştırma tekniğine başvurulmuştur. Dönemin önemli olayları hakkında bilgi edinebilmek için birçok kaynak incelenmiş, makale okunmuştur. Belge tarama yöntemi çalışmanın önemli yöntemlerinden biridir. İçerik analiziyle gazetenin eski sayıları üzerinde derin incelemeler yapılmış, söylem analiziyle de gazetenin konulara bakışı yorumlanmaya çalışılmıştır. Tezde, Cumhuriyet'in İkinci Dünya Savaşı yıllarında dönem dönem Hitler Almanya'sını destekleyen bir yayın politikası izlediği ancak bunun, devlet politikası ile paralel bir çizgide olduğu saptanmıştır. Gazete, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti hükümetinin, Almanya ve savaşa katılan diğer ülkelerle uluslar arası ilişkilerine göre yayın politikasını belirlemiştirTurkey never attend to World War II actually but country always been inside of the war because of its geographical and political status. The Goverment was composed by who were seen violence of the World war I. This years were mentioned as Term of İsmet İnönü. In the term of World War II İnönü followed balance politics with all sides of war. Detachment was the only policy of this years. Citizens were restless because of the absence and black market Furthermore, one important action was going on. Press was undercontrol of Parliament members. Because, most of press owners were Parliament Member. PMs, Falih Rıfkı Atay (Ulus), Asım Us (Vakit), Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın (Yeni Sabah), Yunus Nadi (Cumhuriyet), Ethem İzzet Benice (Son Telgraf), were, owner and editor of important newspapers of country. In this term freedom of press was interesting too. According to CHPs regulation (Republican Peoples Party), "PM-Journalists" can't write anything which is opposite to the party idea. This regulation was accept by same PM/journalists In same term Turkey was administration of İsmet İnönü who's called as "National Chief" The decisions of "National Chief" could not to be discuss. And nobody were publish anything about private life of İnönü Family, because it was a penalty.. However, important newspapers and its chief editors were complimenting about National Chief's all decisions. Cumhuriyet was also inside of this mass Yunus Nadi, who's the close friend and brother-in-arms of Ataturk, carried his newspaper (Yeni Gün) to İstanbul. And Atatürk changed name of the newspaper as Cumhuriyet (1924). After Ataturk's dead, Yunus Nadi couldn't get the same support from İsmet İnönü. But he never forgots that he was a PM.. And wrotes his cloumn like a CHP enactment. In İnönü term, presss first business was not "catching a story". Goverment couldn't be crisist by press. In the years of the World War II, Law of Press edited by govermed again.. The new law which was supported by press, made simple to closing newspapers by goverment. The owner and editor of Cumhuriyet Yunus Nadi was stand against of this law. He wrotes at his cloumn (1940/03/02) that, "Press is free and seperated." But also his opinion about logic of journalism is interesting. He answered this question as, "Goverment gives the consept and press wrotes about it" According this issue, we can say that World War II term was, worst days of Turkish Press. At this days goverment's intermeddle was very normal for the press. Goverment could close which newspaper it wants. Because of this, all of newspapers were doing auto-cencor to them selves. To the first days of the war, Cumhuriyet wrotes that, "there was no danger". Yunus Nadi and his son Nadir Nadi wrotes about good faith of Nazi Germany. If we look at the foreign policy opinions at Cumhuriyet which wrote by Yunus Nadi, we couldn't read any thing against to the National Chief. Yunus Nadi always wrotes as the knowledge of he's a PM. He compilimented to İnönü Just about his all coloumns. This was copleted writing like this when they were opponent. But Nadir Nadi was different. Hi wrotes different then Yunus Nadi. He was educated in Germany. He visited all of Europe and he know a lot of thing about Germany, which country was starter of the World War II.. Before the war he thinks positively about Hitler. His opinion about Hitler was mucher than a dictator. Hitler was a National Hero of Germany for him. He wrotes at Cumhuriyet that "Hitler was not the starter of World War. He was have to do this." But the other media criticized him about his options. He went to Germany at the War years and started to be a fan of this country. When, he wrote that "National-Socialism was the only way to be fine", press wars were start. After this Cumhuriyet closed much time by goverment for few days. At this term Turkish media starts to support allied forces, But Cumhuriyet keeps its opinion about Germany.. after this Goverment closed Cumhuriyet for 90 days and sent Nadir Nadi to Germany as a "observer" At this time he makes politics to balance relations with government and Germany. In this term Nadir Nadi's positive approach to Germany is not obstructed but supported by the government. However Cumhuriyet shows close approach to Germany, it did not turn back on western countries and Soviet Union. With the ideas "Friendship-Solidarity", he tried to balance politics with these countries, especially tried to make balance, with the articles of Abidin Daver which backs up England. Beside the articles of Nadir Nadi, the German partialed writings of General H. Emir Erkilet who writes about defence, are important in this term. Later on it was understood that Emir Erkilet wanted Turkey to join the war near Germany, and made secret correspondences and interviews with German authorities for that. Whether it is Nadir Nadi's writings that he started before war and after war when Germany started to retreat, or General Hüseyin Hüsnü Emir Erkilet's panturkist and German partialed writings, Cumhuriyet made a position in WW II which backs up Germany. During WW II years, Cumhuriyet runs into important names. Burhan Felek and Peyami Safa on "Hadiseler Arasında" column, Muharrem Feyzi Togar and Ömer Rıza Doğrul on "Siyasi İcmal", wrote alternately. Ekrem Rıza, Fazıl Ahmet Aykaç and Şükrü Kaya made public on Turkish foreign politics from time to time. When Doğan Nadi (The other son of Yunus Nadi) made name with Europe features from time to time, Ord. Ph. Dr. Hıfzı Veldet Velidedeoğlu starts to write in Cumhuriyet, too. Hıfzı Veldet Velidedeoğlu who was a jurist, wrote on Italian Law and Fasism under "Hukuki Düşünceler" title. In the "Hem Nalına Hem Mıhına" column which was published without signature, Abidin Daver and sometimes Hamdi Varoğlu made comments about daily events.
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